Setup

Run cibuildwheel locally (optional)

Before getting to CI setup, it can be convenient to test cibuildwheel locally to quickly iterate and track down issues without even touching CI.

Install cibuildwheel and run a build like this:

Linux

Using pipx:

pipx run cibuildwheel --platform linux

Or,

pip install cibuildwheel
cibuildwheel --platform linux

macOS

Using pipx:

pipx run cibuildwheel --platform macos

Or,

pip install cibuildwheel
cibuildwheel --platform macos

Windows

Using pipx:

pipx run cibuildwheel --platform windows

Or,

pip install cibuildwheel
cibuildwheel --platform windows

You should see the builds taking place. You can experiment with options using environment variables or pyproject.toml.

Environment variables

cibuildwheel will read config from the environment. Syntax varies, depending on your shell:

POSIX shell (Linux/macOS)

# run a command to set up the build system
export CIBW_BEFORE_ALL='apt install libpng-dev'

cibuildwheel --platform linux

CMD (Windows)

set CIBW_BEFORE_ALL='apt install libpng-dev'

cibuildwheel --platform linux

pyproject.toml

If you write your options into pyproject.toml, you can work on your options locally, and they'll be automatically picked up when running in CI.

pyproject.toml

[tool.cibuildwheel]
before-all = "apt install libpng-dev"

Then invoke cibuildwheel, like:

cibuildwheel --platform linux

Linux builds

If you've got Docker installed on your development machine, you can run a Linux build.

Tip

You can run the Linux build on any platform. Even Windows can run Linux containers these days, but there are a few hoops to jump through. Check this document for more info.

Because the builds are happening in manylinux Docker containers, they're perfectly reproducible.

The only side effect to your system will be docker images being pulled.

macOS / Windows builds

Pre-requisite: you need to have native build tools installed.

Because the builds are happening without full isolation, there might be some differences compared to CI builds (Xcode version, Visual Studio version, OS version, local files, ...) that might prevent you from finding an issue only seen in CI.

In order to speed-up builds, cibuildwheel will cache the tools it needs to be reused for future builds. The folder used for caching is system/user dependent and is reported in the printed preamble of each run (e.g. "Cache folder: /Users/Matt/Library/Caches/cibuildwheel").

You can override the cache folder using the CIBW_CACHE_PATH environment variable.

Warning

cibuildwheel uses official python.org macOS installers for CPython but those can only be installed globally.

In order not to mess with your system, cibuildwheel won't install those if they are missing. Instead, it will error out with a message to let you install the missing CPython:

Error: CPython 3.6 is not installed.
cibuildwheel will not perform system-wide installs when running outside of CI.
To build locally, install CPython 3.6 on this machine, or, disable this version of Python using CIBW_SKIP=cp36-macosx_*

Download link: https://www.python.org/ftp/python/3.6.8/python-3.6.8-macosx10.9.pkg

Configure a CI service

GitHub Actions [linux/mac/windows]

To build Linux, Mac, and Windows wheels using GitHub Actions, create a .github/workflows/build_wheels.yml file in your repo.

Action

For GitHub Actions, cibuildwheel provides an action you can use. This is concise and enables easier auto updating via GitHub's Dependabot; see Automatic updates.

.github/workflows/build_wheels.yml

name: Build

on: [push, pull_request]

jobs:
  build_wheels:
    name: Build wheels on ${{ matrix.os }}
    runs-on: ${{ matrix.os }}
    strategy:
      matrix:
        os: [ubuntu-20.04, windows-2019, macos-11]

    steps:
      - uses: actions/checkout@v3

      - name: Build wheels
        uses: pypa/cibuildwheel@v2.10.2
        # env:
        #   CIBW_SOME_OPTION: value
        #    ...
        # with:
        #   package-dir: .
        #   output-dir: wheelhouse
        #   config-file: "{package}/pyproject.toml"

      - uses: actions/upload-artifact@v3
        with:
          path: ./wheelhouse/*.whl

Use env: to pass build options and with: to set package-dir: ., output-dir: wheelhouse and config-file: '' locations (those values are the defaults).

pipx

The GitHub Actions runners have pipx installed, so you can easily build in just one line. This is internally how the action works; the main benefit of the action form is easy updates via GitHub's Dependabot.

.github/workflows/build_wheels.yml

name: Build

on: [push, pull_request]

jobs:
  build_wheels:
    name: Build wheels on ${{ matrix.os }}
    runs-on: ${{ matrix.os }}
    strategy:
      matrix:
        os: [ubuntu-20.04, windows-2019, macos-11]

    steps:
      - uses: actions/checkout@v3

      - name: Build wheels
        run: pipx run cibuildwheel==2.10.2

      - uses: actions/upload-artifact@v3
        with:
          path: ./wheelhouse/*.whl

Generic

This is the most generic form using setup-python and pip; it looks the most like the other CI examples. If you want to avoid having setup that takes advantage of GitHub Actions features or pipx being preinstalled, this might appeal to you.

.github/workflows/build_wheels.yml

name: Build

on: [push, pull_request]

jobs:
  build_wheels:
    name: Build wheels on ${{ matrix.os }}
    runs-on: ${{ matrix.os }}
    strategy:
      matrix:
        os: [ubuntu-20.04, windows-2019, macos-11]

    steps:
      - uses: actions/checkout@v3

      # Used to host cibuildwheel
      - uses: actions/setup-python@v3

      - name: Install cibuildwheel
        run: python -m pip install cibuildwheel==2.10.2

      - name: Build wheels
        run: python -m cibuildwheel --output-dir wheelhouse

      - uses: actions/upload-artifact@v3
        with:
          path: ./wheelhouse/*.whl

Commit this file, and push to GitHub - either to your default branch, or to a PR branch. The build should start automatically.

For more info on this file, check out the docs.

examples/github-deploy.yml extends this minimal example with a demonstration of how to automatically upload the built wheels to PyPI.

Azure Pipelines [linux/mac/windows]

To build Linux, Mac, and Windows wheels on Azure Pipelines, create a azure-pipelines.yml file in your repo.

azure-pipelines.yml

jobs:
- job: linux
  pool: {vmImage: 'Ubuntu-16.04'}
  steps:
    - task: UsePythonVersion@0
    - bash: |
        set -o errexit
        python3 -m pip install --upgrade pip
        pip3 install cibuildwheel==2.10.2
      displayName: Install dependencies
    - bash: cibuildwheel --output-dir wheelhouse .
      displayName: Build wheels
    - task: PublishBuildArtifacts@1
      inputs: {pathtoPublish: 'wheelhouse'}

- job: macos
  pool: {vmImage: 'macOS-11'}
  steps:
    - task: UsePythonVersion@0
    - bash: |
        set -o errexit
        python3 -m pip install --upgrade pip
        python3 -m pip install cibuildwheel==2.10.2
      displayName: Install dependencies
    - bash: cibuildwheel --output-dir wheelhouse .
      displayName: Build wheels
    - task: PublishBuildArtifacts@1
      inputs: {pathtoPublish: wheelhouse}

- job: windows
  pool: {vmImage: 'windows-2019'}
  steps:
    - task: UsePythonVersion@0
    - bash: |
        set -o errexit
        python -m pip install --upgrade pip
        pip install cibuildwheel==2.10.2
      displayName: Install dependencies
    - bash: cibuildwheel --output-dir wheelhouse .
      displayName: Build wheels
    - task: PublishBuildArtifacts@1
      inputs: {pathtoPublish: 'wheelhouse'}

Commit this file, enable building of your repo on Azure Pipelines, and push.

Wheels will be stored for you and available through the Pipelines interface. For more info on this file, check out the docs.

Travis CI [linux/windows]

To build Linux and Windows wheels on Travis CI, create a .travis.yml file in your repo.

.travis.yml

os: linux
dist: focal
language: python

jobs:
  include:
    # perform a linux build
    - services: docker
    # perform a linux ARMv8 build
    - services: docker
      arch: arm64
    # perform a linux PPC64LE build
    - services: docker
      arch: ppc64le
    # perform a linux S390X build
    - services: docker
      arch: s390x
    # and a windows build
    - os: windows
      language: shell
      before_install:
        - choco upgrade python -y --version 3.8.6
        - export PATH="/c/Python38:/c/Python38/Scripts:$PATH"
        # make sure it's on PATH as 'python3'
        - ln -s /c/Python38/python.exe /c/Python38/python3.exe

install:
  - python3 -m pip install cibuildwheel==2.10.2

script:
  # build the wheels, put them into './wheelhouse'
  - python3 -m cibuildwheel --output-dir wheelhouse

Commit this file, enable building of your repo on Travis CI, and push.

Then setup a deployment method by following the Travis CI deployment docs, or see Delivering to PyPI. For more info on .travis.yml, check out the docs.

examples/travis-ci-deploy.yml extends this minimal example with a demonstration of how to automatically upload the built wheels to PyPI.

AppVeyor [linux/mac/windows]

To build Linux, Mac, and Windows wheels on AppVeyor, create an appveyor.yml file in your repo.

appveyor.yml

environment:
  matrix:
    - APPVEYOR_BUILD_WORKER_IMAGE: Ubuntu
      APPVEYOR_JOB_NAME: "python37-x64-ubuntu"
    - APPVEYOR_BUILD_WORKER_IMAGE: Visual Studio 2015
      APPVEYOR_JOB_NAME: "python37-x64-vs2015"
    - APPVEYOR_BUILD_WORKER_IMAGE: macos-mojave
      APPVEYOR_JOB_NAME: "python37-x64-macos-mojave"

stack: python 3.7

init:
- cmd: set PATH=C:\Python37;C:\Python37\Scripts;%PATH%

install: python -m pip install cibuildwheel==2.10.2

build_script: python -m cibuildwheel --output-dir wheelhouse

artifacts:
  - path: "wheelhouse\\*.whl"
    name: Wheels

Commit this file, enable building of your repo on AppVeyor, and push.

AppVeyor will store the built wheels for you - you can access them from the project console. Alternatively, you may want to store them in the same place as the Travis CI build. See AppVeyor deployment docs for more info, or see Delivering to PyPI below.

For more info on this config file, check out the docs.

CircleCI [linux/mac]

To build Linux and Mac wheels on CircleCI, create a .circleci/config.yml file in your repo,

.circleci/config.yml

version: 2

jobs:
  linux-wheels:
    working_directory: ~/linux-wheels
    docker:
      - image: circleci/python:3.9
    steps:
      - checkout
      - setup_remote_docker
      - run:
          name: Build the Linux wheels.
          command: |
            pip3 install --user cibuildwheel==2.10.2
            cibuildwheel --output-dir wheelhouse
      - store_artifacts:
          path: wheelhouse/

  osx-wheels:
    working_directory: ~/osx-wheels
    macos:
      xcode: 12.5.1
    steps:
      - checkout
      - run:
          name: Build the OS X wheels.
          command: |
            pip3 install cibuildwheel==2.10.2
            cibuildwheel --output-dir wheelhouse
      - store_artifacts:
          path: wheelhouse/

workflows:
  version: 2
  all-tests:
    jobs:
      - linux-wheels
      - osx-wheels

Commit this file, enable building of your repo on CircleCI, and push.

Note

CircleCI doesn't enable free macOS containers for open source by default, but you can ask for access. See here for more information.

CircleCI will store the built wheels for you - you can access them from the project console. Check out the CircleCI docs for more info on this config file.

Gitlab CI [linux]

To build Linux wheels on Gitlab CI, create a .gitlab-ci.yml file in your repo,

.gitlab-ci.yml

linux:
  image: python:3.8
  # make a docker daemon available for cibuildwheel to use
  services:
    - name: docker:dind
      entrypoint: ["env", "-u", "DOCKER_HOST"]
      command: ["dockerd-entrypoint.sh"]
  variables:
    DOCKER_HOST: tcp://docker:2375/
    DOCKER_DRIVER: overlay2
    # See https://github.com/docker-library/docker/pull/166
    DOCKER_TLS_CERTDIR: ""
  script:
    - curl -sSL https://get.docker.com/ | sh
    - python -m pip install cibuildwheel==2.10.2
    - cibuildwheel --output-dir wheelhouse
  artifacts:
    paths:
      - wheelhouse/

Commit this file, and push to Gitlab. The pipeline should start automatically.

Gitlab will store the built wheels for you - you can access them from the Pipelines view. Check out the Gitlab docs for more info on this config file.

Cirrus CI [linux/mac/windows]

To build Linux, Mac, and Windows wheels on Cirrus CI, create a .cirrus.yml file in your repo,

.cirrus.yml

build_and_store_wheels: &BUILD_AND_STORE_WHEELS
  install_cibuildwheel_script:
    - python -m pip install cibuildwheel==2.10.2
  run_cibuildwheel_script:
    - cibuildwheel
  wheels_artifacts:
    path: "wheelhouse/*"


linux_x86_task:
  name: Build Linux x86 wheels.
  compute_engine_instance:
    image_project: cirrus-images
    image: family/docker-builder
    platform: linux
    cpu: 4
    memory: 4G

  install_pre_requirements_script:
    - apt install -y python3-venv python-is-python3
  <<: *BUILD_AND_STORE_WHEELS

linux_aarch64_task:
  name: Build Linux aarch64 wheels.
  compute_engine_instance:
    image_project: cirrus-images
    image: family/docker-builder-arm64
    architecture: arm64
    platform: linux
    cpu: 4
    memory: 4G

  install_pre_requirements_script:
    - apt install -y python3-venv python-is-python3
  <<: *BUILD_AND_STORE_WHEELS

windows_x86_task:
  name: Build Windows x86 wheels.
  windows_container:
    image: cirrusci/windowsservercore:visualstudio2022
    cpu: 4
    memory: 4G

  install_pre_requirements_script:
    - choco install -y --no-progress python3 --version 3.10.6
    - refreshenv
    - echo PATH=%PATH% >> "%CIRRUS_ENV%"
  <<: *BUILD_AND_STORE_WHEELS

macos_arm64_task:
  name: Build macOS arm64 wheels.
  macos_instance:
    image: ghcr.io/cirruslabs/macos-monterey-xcode

  env:
    PATH: /opt/homebrew/opt/python@3.10/bin:$PATH
  install_pre_requirements_script:
    - brew install python@3.10
    - ln -s python3 /opt/homebrew/opt/python@3.10/bin/python
  <<: *BUILD_AND_STORE_WHEELS

Commit this file, enable building of your repo on Cirrus CI, and push.

Cirrus CI will store the built wheels for you - you can access them from the individual task view. Check out the Cirrus CI docs for more info on this config file.

⚠️ Got an error? Check the FAQ.

Next steps

Once you've got the wheel building successfully, you might want to set up testing or automatic releases to PyPI.